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MexSamurai
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 17, 2008 7:06 pm    Post subject: Bushido Beliefs Reply with quote
Bushido had become somewhat old fashioned by the turn of the 19th century, but was still practiced by the old samurai class families. For instance, when the Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese War hero, Taisho Maresuki Nogi heard of the death of Emperor Meiji in 1912, he and his wife decided to commit goi shinju (a family suicide by mutual consent) on the morning of the imperial funeral; and they did it according to their Bushido beliefs. Thus Bushido was a code of honor, but when it was revived in 1930's as part of ideological equipment of the military regime, its ethics were seen as perverted by the West. Hey Have you read Kiki Wadatsumi no Koe (Harken to the Ocean Voices'; Tokyo 1952)? In a book, "They drew from Bushido ethics a duty to protect motherland Japan from foreign pollution and to screen their families from danger."

The philosophy of Bushido brought a mental calm to the KAMIKAZE (Japanese Kamikaze in World War 2). Historians aver that the spirit of Bushido was a great Japanese strength. The belief that Japan's fighting men were the reincarnation of SAMURAI and that the holy spirit of Bushido.
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PostPosted: Tue Jun 17, 2008 7:22 pm    Post subject: Re: Bushido Beliefs Reply with quote
MexSamurai wrote:
Bushido had become somewhat old fashioned by the turn of the 19th century,


I think you mean 20th century.
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MexSamurai
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PostPosted: Wed Jun 18, 2008 7:39 am    Post subject: Re: Bushido Beliefs Reply with quote
kitsuno wrote:
MexSamurai wrote:
Bushido had become somewhat old fashioned by the turn of the 19th century,


I think you mean 20th century.


Arigato.. Embarassed
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shikisoku
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PostPosted: Sat Jan 14, 2012 5:01 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote
From 武士道の逆襲 Bushido no Gyakushu (Counterattack of Bushido)
Kanno Kakumyou, Tokyo University

(My translation isn't good, I welcome any correction)

Quote:

新渡戸武士道が、当事者としての武士を全く無視した、武士とは無関係な思想であるという批判は「武士道」の日本版が刊行された直後に、すでに歴史学者津田左右吉によってなされている。

Nitobe-Bushido was criticized to be nothing to do with actual Bushido by scholar Tsuda Sokichi when Nitobe-Bushido was translated in Japanese.


Quote:
新渡戸説をもとに武士道を論ずる一般の人々にあっても、彼らの抱いている武士のイメージは、新渡戸の著書とは全然別のところから来ているものであろう。彼らは、さまざまな歴史書や歴史小説から、それぞれの武士像を形作っているにすぎない。

Common people who talk about Bushido based on Nitobe-Bushido have image of Bushi from outside of Nitobe's book.
They form image of Bushi from history books or novels.


Quote:
新渡戸武士道は、明治国家体制を根拠として生まれた、近代思想である。

Nitobe-Bushido is a modern thought born from Meiji state system.


Quote:
武士道という言葉が使われ始めるのは、およそ江戸時代初め頃である。
そのころの用例では、武士道という語は、戦闘者の流儀や気風といった意味をあらわしており、「武道」や「武辺」という語と同様に用いられていた。

The word Bushido beginned to be used was early Edo period.
Bushido meant styles or atmosphere of warriors and used same as Budo or Buhen.


Quote:
津田左右吉が1901年に発表した文章の中でこう述べている。
「武士道は一の階級思想であって、愛国を意識して生まれた国民的思想ではない。したがって、武士道を国民的思想の表徴であり、対外的比較のニュアンスを含む大和魂と単純に同一視することはできない。

According to a text that Tsuda Sokichi released in 1901.
"Bushido was the social rank thought, not national thought which was made to be aware of patriotism.
Bushido can't be seen same as Yamato Damashii(Soul of Japan) which contains externally competitive nuance.


Quote:
武士道の内容は平安末期の軍記物語等にあらわれ、源平時代に殆どその定形を得て慶長・元和に至る武士の気象と行動をいう。
この間、枝葉の点にはいくつも変化があるが、その中心的思想は、源平時代から徳川時代初頭までの400年間、ほとんど変わるところはない。」

The concept of Bushido was first seen on Military novels in late Heian period, the finite form of Bushido was established in Geipei period (Genji-Heike wars).
The contents of Buishido was Bushi's nature and behaviors till Keicho-Genna priod through those times.


Quote:
江戸時代の武士の思想の主流は、この儒教的な士道である。
士道論者の多くは儒学を学んだ知識人であり、代表的な人物としては、山鹿素行や大道寺友山の名を上げることができる。

The main stream thought of Bushi during Edo period was Confucianistic Shido.
Many of those who talked about Shido were intellectuals who learned Confucianism like Yamaga Soko or Daidoji Yuzan.


Quote:
これら士道論者たちが、戦国乱世の気風を受け継ごうとする武士道論者に対して概ね批判的な態度をとっていた。

The Shido supporters (Confucianistic intellectuals) were critical to Bushido supporters who tried to carry feeling of Sengoku.(Warring state period)



Quote:
山鹿素行以後の士道と、それ以前の武士道とは、おおよそ似ても似つかぬ者だ。

Shido after Yamaga Soko and Bushido before Yamaga Soko were totally different.


Quote:
折口信夫いわく
「素行以後のものは、士道であって、それ以前のものは、前にも言うた野ぶし山ぶしに系統を持つ、ごろつきの道徳である。」

According to Origuchi Nobuo,
"It was Shido after Yamaga Soko, the one before Yamaga Soko was ethic of punks inherited from Nobushi or Yamabushi.




Heian
l
lBushido 武士道
l
Edo (Pre Yamaga)
Edo (After Yamaga)
l
lShido 士道
l
Meiji
l
lNitobe-Bushido 新渡戸武士道


Last edited by shikisoku on Sun Jan 15, 2012 4:31 pm; edited 1 time in total
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JLBadgley
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PostPosted: Sun Jan 15, 2012 5:46 am    Post subject: Reply with quote
I've never seen "士道" refered to as "Shido"--but I guess that would translate from the Chinese as either "Way of the Warrior*" or "Way of the Gentleman". In other words, the main purpose behind Confucius's teachings, as I understand it. Is there a more specific meaning in the Edo period?

-Josh

*"SHI" (士) originally seems to have meant a person of the military class, but, just as in many places in the world, the military nature of the nobility seems to have waned in favor of their civilian rank and position. It is often translated as "knight", even when that translation may no longer be appropriate. By the Edo period, it would have been understood, I believe, as the equivalent of the samurai.
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shikisoku
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PostPosted: Thu Jan 19, 2012 8:54 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote
From 武士道の逆襲 Bushido no Gyakushu (Counterattack of Bushido)

Quote:
上下万民に対し、一言半句も虚言を申すべからず。
かりそめにもありのままたるべし。
虚言つぐれば、癖になりてせせらるる也。
人にやがて見限られるべし。
人に糺され申しては、一期の恥と心得べき也。
(早雲寺殿廿一箇条)

Never lie to people.
Just be as you are.
Once you lie, you will lie again.
People will ditch you someday.
Being urged by someone is a shame.
(Hojo Soun's 21 Articles)


Quote:
武者を心がくる者は、第一うそをつかぬもの也。
いささかもうろんなる事なく、不断理致義を立て、物恥を仕るが本にて候。
(中略)
不断うそをつき、うろんなる者は、如何様の実義を申し候へども、例のうそつきにて候と、かげにて指をさし、敵味方ともに信用なき物にて候間、よくよくたしなみ有るべき事。
(朝倉宗滴話記)

Samurai who tries to keep being warrior does not lie.
Always being dutifull never be indecisive or he gets embarrassed.
Whatever effeminate liar says, both friend and enemy won't trust,
they will bad mouth "He's the liar"
(Asakura Soteki Waki)


Quote:
よく知られているように、嘘をつかないというのは、武士道の根本的徳目の一つである。
だが、今上げた2つの例を読めば分かるように、嘘を付くことは、道徳的に善くない行いだからという理由で禁止されているわけではないのである。
もし道徳的善悪が根拠になっているのならば、敵に対する謀略や、敵味方の目を欺く戦術一般もまた、善からぬ行いとして否定せざるをえないだろう。
そもそも、人を殺して領地を奪うことからして、懐疑の目にさらされざるをえまい。

It is well known that never lying is one of fundamental virtues in Bushido.
However as you see in the 2 examples, lying isn't prohibited because of morality.
If the reason was morality, use of espionage which is a common stratedy has to be prohibited with the same reason.
Taking over territory by killing has to be skeptical in the first place.


Quote:
合戦の場では、どんなに大事なこと、複雑なことでも端的に口頭で伝達せねばならない。
いちいち公式文書を作ったり、解説をつけたりしている場合ではない。
あいまいなこと、はっきりしないこと、裏表のはっきりしないことは、武士の武士たることが最終的に試される合戦の場では通用しない。
中略
普段から嘘をつき、「うろん」なところのあるものは、戦う者としての根本資格が疑われるからである。


You have to report any important things or complicated things by oral at battle field.
There is no time to make a document.
Each Samurai are expected to act as Samurai in battle field, ambiguous attitude don't work.
Liar is not qualified to be warrior.
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